Multi-talented individuals, fountain artists from the 16th to the late 18th century often served as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one person. Throughout the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci exemplified the creator as a innovative intellect, creator and scientific expert. With his tremendous fascination concerning the forces of nature, he examined the properties and mobility of water and also carefully recorded his findings in his now celebrated notebooks. Early Italian water fountain designers converted private villa configurations into inspiring water exhibits full of emblematic meaning and natural beauty by combining imagination with hydraulic and gardening talent. Known for his virtuosity in archeology, design and garden design, Pirro Ligorio, the humanist, delivered the vision behind the splendors in Tivoli. Masterminding the fascinating water marbles, water features and water antics for the numerous estates brochure water wall fountains in the vicinity of Florence, some other fountain engineers were well versed in humanist issues as well as ancient technical texts.